Vaginal discharge is a common clinical problem with many etiologies. In the past vague หวยเด็ด terminology such as “non-specific vaginitis” or “nonspecific lower genital tract infections” often was used to describe conditions that produce vaginal discharge. Recently, careful definition of clinical syndromes and increased knowledge about the specific agents that cause genital infection in women have made more precise diagnosis possible.
The vagina, ectocervix and endocervix are all suspectible to various pathogens, depending on the type of epithelium present and other factors in the microenvironment. The squamous epithelium of the vagina and ectocervix is susceptible to infection with candida species and Trichomonas vaginalis and the columnar epithelium of the endocervix is susceptible to infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Herpes simplex virus may infect both types of epithelium.Vaginal discharge is a common symptom of genital infection in women. Identifying its source can be challenging, because a large number of pathogens cause vaginal and cervical infection, and several infections may co-exist. Patient history and physical examination findings may suggest a diagnosis. Useful tests for etiological diagnosis include pH analysis of vaginal fluid, the “whiff test”, wet mount examination, culture and Gram’s stain.Vaginitis resulting from bacterial, fungal or protozoal infections can be associated with altered vaginal discharge, odour, pruritus, vulvovaginal irritation, dysurea or dyspareunia depending on the type of infection. Bacterial vaginosis which is primarily characterized by a malodorous discharge is common in women with multiple sex partners and is caused by the overgrowth of several facultative and anaerobic bacterial species. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by pruritis and cotton cheese like discharge. Vaginal trichomoniasis, is associated with a copious yellow or green, sometimes frothy discharge. Differential diagnosis of these infections requires a thorough history, vulvo-vaginal examination, simple laboratory tests, including microscopy of the vaginal discharge.
Vaginal discharge is a standard presenting symptom at gynaecology and sexual wellbeing clinics and in general exercise. It is usually physiological and is subject matter to hormonal variations in consistency and amount. With this particular in mind, appropriate diagnosis and therapy of abnormal vaginal discharge could be tough. Concurrent pregnancy also can complicate the problem. Some pathological ailments may lead to vaginal discharge, like cervicitis, aerobic vaginitis, atrophic vaginitis and mucoid ectopy. We generally target the 3 most widespread pathological leads to specifically; bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis and will also give a quick overview of atypical inflammatory vaginitis as well. Getting a methodical and specific history with the affected individual need to give the majority of the information essential. Assessment and Assessment of discharge with swabs certainly are a valuable adjunct to aid analysis. The moment a analysis is created, proper therapy should then be instigated and sometimes spouse notification and therapy can also be required.IntroductionVaginal discharge is a typical situation. Discharge is mainly physiological. It really is afflicted by hormonal variation through the entire life time of females. Prognosis of abnormal discharge is tranquil complicated. Ailments for instance pregnancy and co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus make the management really challenging. Pathologies including vaginitis, cervicitis or cervical atopy may also lead to vaginal discharge. The most common leads to of vaginal discharge are bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis.Brings about of vaginal discharge consist of: physiological discharge, bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), T. vaginalis (TV), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus, overseas human body (e.g. retained tampon and condom), irritants (e.g. perfumes or deodorants), atrophic vaginitis, fistulae and tumours impacting the vulva, vagina and cervix.